by Gael O’Brien
Criticisms of business seeing value creation only in terms of achieving short-term, unsustainable results and how business schools prepare future leaders predate the financial meltdown. Warren Bennis and Jim O’Toole talked about the need to reform business education several years ago. The crisis simply made it more obvious that business as usual isn’t working, either in the classroom or boardroom.
The piece of management education reform that involves the role of ethics has added importance not only because trust in business has fallen so far, but also because it is tied to how leaders behave and the impact that has on a company culture as well as society.
When students return to campus in coming weeks, dialogue and debate on the purpose of management education and how ethics is handled will continue, impacted by initiatives that seek to help reinforce high ethical standards. Some examples are the MBA Oath project, and programs giving students experience practicing values and integrating ethics into other organizational risk considerations.
While well-regarded companies that have recently suffered reputation meltdown are real-world examples for the classroom, even more important is learning about other models for doing business, like Pepsico, a company that is intentionally setting high ethical standards for itself while still making significant profit.
For many companies ethics has a walk-on part—not much focus beyond the compliance function and website rhetoric about how a company describes its values. If integrating ethical considerations into strategic business decisions was the norm, we wouldn’t keep enduring debilitating crises where consequences of actions apparently aren’t clear to leaders until a regulator shows up or media headlines send stock prices lower.
Performance with Purpose
The reality is that crises at Toyota, Goldman Sachs and BP – to name a few — involved ethical failures as potent as the business miscalculations and addiction to gaining ever-higher quarterly profits, where choices and shortcuts harmed stakeholders. Just as the ethical debacle of Enron was a wake up call met by additional regulation and beefed up ethics focus in companies, the corporate crises so far this year offer another kind of wake up call that companies and management education would do well to heed. How many more examples do we need of value creation only being about profit at the expense of society?
Indra Nooyi, Pepsico’s chairman and CEO, told students at Yale’s School of Management in May 2010 that “performance with purpose is how we run the company.” She explained that “Performance with purpose is about how you can intimately link what a company can do with what the needs of society are and together deliver great performance.”
“Pepsico wants to be the model of the good company,’ she continued, “an example of how business should be done in the 21st century.” This sets the bar very high at Pepsico. The business model requires integrating ethical considerations into the mix of business considerations, aligning decisions with purpose, and acting in a manner that inspires employees to do their best work. The result, if made a reality, establishes trust with stakeholders.
It is the inconsistencies that often trip a company up. Simon Webley, Research Director at the Institute of Business Ethics in London, makes a distinction between doing ethical things (like philanthropy and environmental activities) and doing things ethically. Doing the former is no substitute for doing things ethically, he says, mentioning a company in the U.K. known for the wonderful things it does for the community, but yet it doesn’t pay its suppliers on time. “It is easier to do CSR (corporate social reposnibility) than to integrate high ethical standards throughout the organization.”
Adhering to high ethical standards is at the heart of the Oath Project started at Harvard Business School last year as a grassroots movement of students and faculty. The voluntary pledge to “create value responsibly and ethically” seeks to create a community of MBAs (signers are from more than 250 schools) who share a high standard for ethical and professional behavior. Nitin Nohria, who became Dean of Harvard Business School this month, has been a strong supporter of the project.
Role of Values
Will signing a piece of paper change anything? It depends. We should consider how change occurs; it starts with a personal act of intention, followed by action, gaining reality through repetition and reinforcement until it becomes how things are done by an individual, and a collection of individuals. It is too soon to know the success of the movement or its influence on the companies graduates join. However, it is a start. The Oath Project is supported by many organizations, including Aspen Institute’s Business and Society Program (BSP).
Part of expressing high ethical standards is the ability to speak up in support of those values. Over 100 business schools globally are participating in an innovative, cross-disciplinary business curriculum called Giving Voice to Values (GVV) created by Mary Gentile. The program raises different kinds of questions than the case study approach: “Rather than asking ‘what is the right thing to do?’ she says, “we ask ‘how can I get the ‘right thing’ done?’” In GVV, students go on to answer other questions raised including: “What do I say to whom, what will they say back, and then what do I say? What data do I need? What allies do I need, etc.”
In GVV, Gentile says, “we ask students to create and practice literal scripts and action plans so that the program goes beyond awareness building and analysis to action.” The relatively new program was incubated at the Aspen’s BSP and also sponsored by Yale School of Management before moving to Babson College last year.
To help students practice integrating ethics into the decision-making mix, Loyola Marymount University (LMU) has developed an invitational intercollegiate business ethics case competition which attracts international participation. It is also sponsored by the Ethics and Compliance Officer Association, a professional group for corporate compliance officers, whose members serve as judges. MBA and undergraduate teams make presentations showing their understanding of the legal, ethical and financial dimensions of problems.
“Every decision you make in business generally occurs when you are under pressure, without all the information or time you’d like, and in the midst of competing factors – usually financial, legal or ethical issues,” says Thomas White, professor and director of the Center for Ethics and Business, who created the competition. “There needs to be more emphasis on ethics education in MBA programs (however it is done) because individuals need more technical ability in recognizing and resolving ethical issues, which are as sophisticated and complex as any financial problem, and getting more so.”
The success of business education reform has many champions, and is coming up again at a time when there is crisis fatigue as well as examples of successful companies with a value proposition that puts a priority on social good. Will current business leaders support training new leaders in skills and competencies that support new models of business or will we need to endure more business as usual?
Gael O’Brien is a Business Ethics Magazine columnist. Gael is a thought leader on building leadership, trust, and reputation and writes The Week in Ethics, a weekly column at http://theweekinethics.wordpr